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  • Recognitions - HKA | Hermann Kamte & Associates

    HKA | RECOGNITIONS ​ HKA RECOGNITIONS ​ AWARDS ​ PUBLICATIONS ​ PRESS ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​

  • Projects - HKA | Hermann Kamte & Associates

    HKA | PROJECTS OLGA HOUSE Private Residence Well-being, lightness & Materiality Yaounde, Cameroon 2018 FINE FLOWER - DUBAI HEART Amusement Park Cultural Centre Dubai, United Arabe Emirates 2017 PIXA Flexible Structure Sunbrella - The Future Of Shade Worldwide 2017 THE FORGOTTEN - DEAD OR ALIVE Lake Chad Resurgence Humanitarian Research Lake Chad, Cameroon, Nigeria, Niger, Chad 2016 LAGOS'S WOODEN TOWER Sustainable Wooden Tower Plan B - The City Above The City - Shortlisted Lagos, Nigeria 2016 E-CANVAS Community Support - Transformations That Matter - First Prize Tirana Architecture Week - Urban Research Tirana, Albania 2016 LEGO LUNCH Recycled Shipping Container Daily Meal Ryterna Modul Siauliai, Lithuania 2016 TINY HOUSING ESTATE Affordable House for Homeless Social Re-Connection Chicago, USA 2016 LUCY HOUSE Affordable House Well-being, lightness & Materiality Yaounde, Cameroon 2015 TRADITIONAL SPLINE SCHOOL School For Community Humanitarian Research Fachi, NIger 2015 NATIVE SKYSCRAPER Smart Buildings For Resilient Cities Hybrid Wood Structure Yaounde, Cameroon 2015 LONDON BAY Criticism About The City When The Critic Refuses Its Own Critic - A Folly For London London, UK 2015 PYRAMID Science Fiction Museum Wooden Structure Washington, USA 2014 CHALK'S GAMES Playing Zone Child Friendly Public Space Ivano-Frankivsk , Ukraine 2015 PANDORA'S BOX Ruukki Logistic Centre The Future Of Workplace Oulu, Finland 2015 ASTEROIDEA - FLOATING CITY Amphibian & Biomimicry City Jacques Rougerie Foundation - Preselected World Ocean 2014 UMBRELLA Cool Primary School Building Trust international Khovd, Mongolia 2015 THE CELL Bamiyan Cultural Centre Rammed Earth Design Bamiyan, Afghanistan 2015 BiCyCLE STUDIO Wooden Tiny Studio Humanitarian & Sustainable Research Mbalmayo, Cameroon 2012 En voir plus ​ HKA PROJECTS ​ ​

  • Practice - HKA | Hermann Kamte & Associates

    HKA | PRACTICE ​ HKA PROCESS ​ HKA | Hermann Kamte & Associates is a global studio for sustainable architecture, engineering, urbanism, and industrial design, founded by Hermann Kamte in 2017. Since then, he, and the team around him, have established an international practice with a worldwide reputation. We work as a single studio that is both ethnically and culturally diverse. Our goal is to deliver inviting buildings that are a pleasure to work, live, learn, or play in. We contribute to the community through excellence in design and innovation. ​ Each project we do has a unique story. We hope each captures the spirit of its client and community and enhances the wonder of living. A beautiful building falls short if it doesn’t also speak to us with meaning; if it doesn’t connect with a story; and if it doesn’t contribute to a positive experience. ​ We believe that good buildings are good neighbors. That may mean they are modest and quiet, or it may mean they need to take a bold stance. As a good neighbor, they must understand how they influence others and how the size of their footprint impacts ecosystems and climate change as a whole. We have become internationally known for our leadership in building with advanced wood products and technologies, and we love to use these materials where appropriate; that said, we strive to choose systems and finishes for each project based on our clients’ needs. ​ From our experience, we recognize that value and budgets go beyond the construction site and should be considered with respect to the overall operating costs. As designers, we are attentive to issues such as energy performance, durability, and overall maintenance; all issues that affect the true cost of the building. ​ Through diversity we find wonder. From the diversity of our projects, clients, and staff we gather knowledge from one type of project and hand it to the next, avoiding cookie-cutter solutions. Our skylines should be diverse but complementary. ​ We also believe in possibility. We thrive in the optimism that all projects, big and small, high-end, or very modest, can be exceptional if we do what we do best: dream big and walk with our clients on an inventive and ambitious path. ​ HKA THINKING ​ HKA is a Cameroonian based team of young designers and thinkers operating within the fields of architecture, urbanism, interior design, product design, and research. Research is a key design driver for HKA. As designers, we are fortunate to experience the overall process, from the first conceptual phase to the completion of high-quality projects. 3D and parametric modeling tools are at the center of our design process, and we use them to quickly develop many design concepts to evaluate using simulation and testing software. Many of our projects involve complex geometry that is developed through bespoke-written algorithmic definitions and parametric scripts. A thorough process of experimentation with geometry, material choices, space layout, innovative building practices, contemporary theory, blockchain technology, and big data is conducted once a project direction has been established. Our practice has adopted BIM (Building Modelling Information) technology since its inception, embracing the benefits of early design integration, coordination, and collaboration with all members of the project team. Collaboration with clients, consultants, and suppliers is central to our working methodology and allows us to work at various scales, in several sectors, and with different disciplines. Early 3D design and validation are used to assist coordination and facilitate clash detection – identifying critical interface issues before construction, and minimizing the risks associated with the redesign and over-estimating cost. ​ At HKA, BIM is a process, not just a model. From the earliest sketches, through to simulation and specifications, onto construction drawings and facility management, all parts of our integrated and collaborative design process is part of a cohesive workflow that brings together the best possible minds to solve complex problems. BIM makes coordination part of an integrated and collaborative design process that reduces clashes and prevents significant re-working. HKA’s BIM data provides a common platform on which designers and cost consultants work together to deliver project value. Merging cost data with continuously updated geometry in the BIM environment produces accurate cost models that give clients cost certainty. ​ From the earliest stages of our projects, HKA uses climatic and contextual data to inform sustainable designs. We use BIM to evaluate design options and simulate building performance. HKA sets out to explore the extreme frontiers of domesticity in the age of network culture with the vision to create a decentralized architecture office and open industry platform. ​ HKA APPROACH ​ HKA is fundamentally driven to advance architectural agency: we believe Architecture should do things, not simply represent things. We emphasize performance, a hybrid of form and function calibrated to each client’s aspirations, and each project’s constraints. Unprejudiced by convention or a preconceived aesthetic strategy, we return to root problems and doggedly explore them with critical naiveté. Sometimes we discover uncharted territory; sometimes we rediscover forgotten territory that has renewed usefulness; sometimes we reaffirm conventions with assured conviction. Through this process, we expose solutions that transcend those we could have initially or individually imagined, and aspire to create radically functional designs whose specificity produces profoundly unique aesthetic experiences. ​ We challenge and advance typologies. HKA feels it is time for Architecture to do things again, not just represent things. We design collaborations rather than dictate solutions. The proliferation of the “starchitecture” phenomenon reduces teams to individuals and their collaborative work to genius sketches. It diminishes the real teamwork that drives celebrated architecture. HKA believes architects should guide collaboration rather than impose solutions. We replace the traditional notion of authorship—“I created this building”—with “We nurtured this process.” We embrace responsibility in order to implement a vision. The implementation of good ideas demands as much, if not more, creativity than their conceptualization. Increasingly reluctant to assume liability, architects have retreated from the accountability (and productivity) of Master Builders to the safety (and impotence) of stylists. To execute the vision and retain the insight that facilitates architectural invention, HKA re-engages responsibility. Processes, including contractual relationships and procurement strategies, are tools with which we design. We side with neither form nor function. HKAbelieves that the struggle between form and function is superficial and unproductive. By emphasizing performance instead—a hybrid of form and function calibrated to each client’s aspirations and each project’s constraints—we free architecture from the tired debate over whether it is an art or a tool. Art performs; tools perform. ​ We don’t rush to architectural conclusions. The largest obstacle facing clients and architects is their failure to speak a common language. By taking adequate time to think with our clients before commencing the traditional design process, we provide solutions to greater clarity and quality. With our clients, we identify the core questions they face and establish shared positions from which we collectively evaluate the architectural proposals that follow. ​ We reach for the unexpected by exposing root problems. We don’t innovate for innovation’s sake. Nor do we accept predigested solutions. We return to root problems and doggedly explore them with critical naiveté. Unprejudiced by convention, we expose solutions that transcend those we could have initially or individually imagined. Sometimes we discover uncharted territory; sometimes we rediscover forgotten territory that has renewed usefulness; sometimes we reaffirm conventions with assured conviction. ​ We view constraints as opportunities. Engaged intelligently, project challenges such as site conditions, budgets, schedules, codes, and politics are opportunities that catalyze the most innovative solutions. Architectural concepts that capitalize on our clients’ constraints will surpass any vision that resists intractable realities. We produce specific designs that are highly effective, not universals diluted in an application. ​ We advance new strategies for flexibility. Despite an increased need to accommodate change, the contemporary design still relies on an antiquated version of flexibility: one size fits all. The promise of a blank slate upon which any activity can occur has produced sterile, unresponsive architecture. HKA advocates discretizing activities and addressing the possible evolutions of each on its own terms. With this strategy, one activity can evolve without sacrificing another, and collisions between activities unleash surprising potentials. We love the banal. HKA dares to be dumb. ​

  • HKA | MTSP

    MTSP - Mother Theresa Square Pavilion The Mother Theresa Square in Tirana is the focal point. It is also a historic landmark for the Albanian culture. It can be seen as an open parliament or an agora of the contemporary city. ​ The MTSP presents an accordion structure to respond the principle of flexibility of space. We have created a space that responds to public needs expressed by functions of the various activities. The MTSP is simple, functional and flexible to meet the needs at minimum cost. By the use of Cardboard, natural, recycled and biodegradable. ​ Our project takes many forms to suit the user's needs. Some forms allow the practice of several activities simultaneously. We considered six scenarios to illustrate the flexibility of our design but the rest depends on the users' freedoms. The MTSP will fit: a cinema; a theater / concert; a cafe / restaurant / bar / a Shop; Exhibition space /; Open Skies concert; Podium for a fashion show / a Play area. Cardboard Paper is a sensitive material, aesthetic and accessible. It has similarities in harmony with the spirit of our concept: The pavilion is made of laminated and corrugated cardboard. It is assembled using housing joints or Glue. Sometimes, another’s joints are required. We use 15mm-20 mm corrugated cardboard. Transparent Resin Epoxy will be used to coated exposed Cardboard for protect it against rain and humidity. ​ PROJECT INFO Type: Client: Team: Size: Location: Year: Status: Awards: Competition Tirana Design Week 2015 Hermann Kamte N/A Tirana, Albania 2015 Proposal N/A PRESS & PUBLICATIONS

  • Philosophy - HKA | Hermann Kamte & Associates

    ARCHITECTURE + DESIGN FIRM © 2020 HKA | HERMANN KAMTE & ASSOCIATES LEGAL NOTICE | PRIVACY POLICY

  • HKA | Arts, Furnitures & Designs

    LIPS BENCH Bench Design Product Indoor / Outdoor Furnitures Admonter Challenge 2016 HOT TO COLD Experimental Pavilion Winter Station Toronto, Canada 2016 BALTIC HOME Public Transport Stop Bus Waiting Sation St Petersburg, Russia 2016 PLUGIN MUTATION Beach Temporary Pavilion Winter Station Toronto, Canada 2016 GROWING UP - FLORIM Florim Pavilion Wood Temporary Structure Milan, Italia 2016 STAIRS Design Stairs Series Trace the Evolution of Staircase Design Eestairs Challenge 2016 BALUSTRADES Design Ballustrades Series Trace the Evolution of Staircase Design Eestairs Challenge 2016 MTSP (Mother Theresa Square Pavilion) Cardboard Pavilion Tirana Design Week Tirana, Albania 2015 @-CONNECT Design Touch Screen Communicating FutureBuilt Oslo, Norway 2015 EQUILIBRIUM Criticism Social Balance - Think Public Space Zabreb, Croatia 2015 ELLIPSOÏD CONSERVATORY Re-Invented The Modern Conservatory David Salysbury Challenge - Shortlisted London, UK 2014 RIPPED BOX Wooden Temporary Structure DIA Summer Pavilion - Finalist Dessau, Germany 2014 En voir plus

  • HKA | Lego Lunch

    LEGO LUNCH Food is an energy resource for organisms. To procure well-being it must be safe and healthy for tasting and for consumption. Lego Lunch is designed with the intend to produce a good environment for people who want to eat or to take their daily meals during relax hours on the workday. By this opportunity to gather people, the aim is also to create a communal place in Siauliai. ​ With creative, sustainable and less expensive approach, the project is built by using recycled shipping containers (20 ft container, the must current). Conceive as modular and replicable structure, each module is independent and can be easily reproduced. Containers are the load-bearing structure with a light touch of the design. ​ Each module contains specific function allowing its flexibility, replication and maintenance if need. The restaurant is extensible in height, but before the roof is hosting a soft greenery. ​ The project creates a comfortable landmark for Siauliai community during the year. It also gives an interesting panoramic views on its neighbouring. Final Aesthetic is a mixture between warm, neutral and cold material, respectively, wood, glass and metal. ​ We benefit of this opportunity, of this energy, of these materials to leave a powerful legacy, a unique architecture in this beautiful community. PROJECT INFO Type: Client: Team: Size: Location: Year: Status: Awards: Competition Ryterna Hermann Kamte N/A Siauliai, Lithuania 2016 Proposal N/A PRESS & PUBLICATIONS David Salisbury

  • Profile - HKA | Hermann Kamte & Associates

    HERMANN KAMTE ​ HERMANN KAMTE ​ ​ ​ HERMANN KAMTE ​ Architect & Designer, Creative Director CEO & Founder at HKA | Hermann Kamte & Associates Ordre National des Architectes du Cameroun | ONAC/NOCA N ° 321 Forbes Africa 30 Under 30 2019 Quartz Africa Innovator 2019 ​ ​ Born on February 20, 1992, in Yaounde, Cameroon, Hermann Kamte started his higher education at the University of Ngaoundere in 2010 after his G.C.E.A-Levels where he started Physical Science Faculty. In 2011, he joined the prestigious EAMAU (École Africaine des Métiers de l’Architecture et de l’Urbanisme) to pursue a course in Architecture. Between 2011 and 2016, Hermann has completed several academics and professional internships in many locals agencies in Togo. During these periods, he also completed important collaborations where the most prestigious is “Songo Real Estate” With “Agence ATRIUM”; the project was a residential real estate promotion and the finals proposal has been reveal during H.E. Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (Turkish President) in Ivory Coast. In 2016, after graduation, Hermann Kamte start his own outfit under “HKA | Hermann Kamte & Associates” and won his first international idea competition where the topic was to redesign de center of Tirana during “Tirana Architecture Week 2016”. The Firm decided to break off with the monotony of the practice of Architecture at the local level, thus opening to the dialogue of Architecture on the international level. Then, HKA | Hermann Kamte & Associates emerged as a solid pole of reflection both in theoretical and practical. With great passion, Hermann explores the field multidisciplinary and transversally to meet the challenges of modern and contemporary architecture. With a philosophical look, he thinks that the sensitivity and complexity of an Architectural project most times break the boundaries between Architecture, Landscape Architecture, Interior Design, or Furniture Design which comes from the interconnection and interaction between these disciplines. As a student, Hermann was rewarded in several competitions with the notable being: Finalist (Jacques Rougerie Competition 2014), Finalist (David Salisbury Competition 2014), and Finalist (DIA Summer Pavilion 2014). But Early 2017, Hermann Kamte started to be recognized for his creatives project and to develop a reputation for designing projects that are as programmatically and technically innovative, sustainable, and ecologically conscious. Then, He has received numerous awards and honors with a focus on Sustainable Development, Cultural Identity and Technology integrating modern design tools into his creative process. Today, at a young age; Hermann Kamte is an awards-wining architect and belongs to the shortlist of the architect who deserves a lot of prizes and awards before the age of 30. He is the winner of the Inaugural WAFX Prize 2017 (1st Prize Cultural Identity), known as the world’s most forward-looking concept at the World Architecture Festival 2017. Winner Of the American Prize of Architecture 2017 (Gold in Architectural Design/Green architecture). Winner at the Rethinking The Future Awards 2017, Bronze A ’Design Awards 2017. Winner of the WA Awards 2017. The Gold Trophy for Eurasian Prize 2018, The Inaugural Archi. Awards Africa “Premiere” held by African Union of Architects (AUA) in 2018, The Jury Trophy at Taipei International Design Awards 2018, etc. Hermann has taken part in several collective exhibitions across the world (United Kingdom, China, India, Italia, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Togo, Albania, Ukraine, Russia, Germany, Australia.), with the most prestigious one being exhibiting the research project ‘Lagos’s Wooden Tower’ in London (UK) at Roca London Gallery under the theme: ‘Timber Rising: Vertical Visions for the Cities of Tomorrow.” He is tagged as one of the new generation Architect pioneering in wooden Structure. In 2017, with his project ‘Lagos’s Wooden Tower’ tagged as the first Proposed Tall Timber in Africa, Hermann attended and exhibited as the only project representing Africa on the map during the Tall Timber Workshop in Australia (Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane). The event was held by the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) under the theme; ‘Connecting The City; People, Density & infrastructure’. Hermann has also been featured on the CTBUH Journal 2017 Issue II named ‘Tall Buildings in Numbers,’ report, ‘Tall Timber: A Global Audit,’ With Other Notable projects such as “The Forgotten – Dead or Alive”, “Traditional Spline School” or ‘Native Skyscraper’; Hermann Kamte has been featured on several International media including but not limited to: The Architectural Review, Financial Times, CNN, Business Day, CTBUH, Afrique Magazine, Australian Timber Magazine, African Design Magazine, Design Indaba, etc. Hermann is also known for his growing contributions to the practice of Architecture through interviews and features. In 2017, Hermann gave an interview for the ‘UK Financial Times’ about ‘Towering Timbers’ at the opening of the World Architecture Festival 2017. Earlier than that, he spoke with ‘Design-Build review’ about ‘Lagos’s Wooden Tower’. In 2018, gave an interview for ‘Metsa Wood’ about ‘Hermann Kamte’s wooden Ambition’, another has been done for the ‘UK Financial Times’ talking about ‘Age of engineered timber’ for Nigeria Report. Another great appearance consists of an interview for ‘African design Magazine’ in preparation for ‘Architecture ZA 2018/AZA18’ and another for ‘Business Day’ under the title: ‘Architects Explore Adaptive Cities.’ In April 2019, Hermann Kamte as a winner of Next Generation during LafargeHolcim Awards was invited to join LafargeHolcim 6th Forum under the theme: “Re-materializing Construction” in Cairo, April 4-6, 2019 alongside Architect Lord Norman Foster (Baron Foster of Thame Bank) and Francis Kere. The event was hosted by the American University in Cairo and LafargeHolcim Foundation. In March 2019, Hermann has been Awarded New Leaders of Tomorrow at the Crans Montana Forum; Where He is a Member alongside Others Famous High Personality across the World (Presidents, Creatives and Businesses or Government Officials). At the same period, he also has been invited to exhibit a Harvard Graduated School of Design during the African Development Conference. The event has been open by H.E. Nana Akufo-Addo(President of Ghana). In December 2018; Hermann has delivered a Keynote Speech alongside President Paul Kagame (Rwanda & Former African Union), President Abdel Fattah Al Sisi (Egypt & New African Union) and four young African entrepreneurs during the Africa 2018 Forum at Sharm El Sheikh, in Egypt (YED Presidential Dialogues). Here, he was also awarded as the 100 Africans startup by the Government of Egypt, COMESA Regional Investment Agency, IFC (International Finance Corporation), and MIIC (Ministry of Investment and International Cooperation).” In November 2018; Hermann was selected as the 30 young creatives African during Atrocities 8th Summit in Morocco. He has delivered a speech alongside High Personality coming across Africa including Government officials. In October 2018; Hermann has delivered a speech at the 2018 annual conference of the Council on Tall Building and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) under the theme: “Polycentric Cities: The Future of Vertical Urbanism” alongside Architect Santiago Calatrava. The Sheikh Mohammed bin Rachid Al Maktoum of Dubai was part of the selected speaker committed. In September 2018; As selected Author during the ‘Lafarge Holcim Awards 2017’, Hermann was invited and has delivered a speech at the 2018 LafargeHolcim Next Generation Awards Lab in Mexico hosted by the Universidad Iberoamericana (IBERO) and LafargeHolcim Foundation under the theme: ‘Sustainable Construction’. In July 2018; two years ago after his graduation and accordingly is young notoriety; Hermann Kamte has been invited by his former school “EAMAU” as an International Judge Member for the 2018 Master Thesis Graduation in Architecture alongside Joe Osae Addo. He also gave a Speech with Dr. Leandre Guigma under the theme “Future Cities: Challenger la Creativité Urbaine”. In May 2018; Hermann delivered a keynote talk at Architecture ZA 2018, The National Conference of Architecture organized by South African Institute of Architect, University of Pretoria and Tshwane University of Technology in Pretoria under the Theme: ‘We The City: Memory and Resilience.’ He is a guest lecturer at the University of Lagos (Faculty of Environmental Science) during the 2018 International Conference Under the theme: ‘Africa Smart City Agenda’. Hermann Kamte was an International Judge for the PPC Imaginarium Awards 2018, known as the most prestigious student prize in Southern Africa, alongside Enrique Browne, Maria Fernanda Derntl, Nadia Tromp, and Heidi Boulanger (van Eeden). The prize was held by Pretoria Portland Cement Company. In May 2017, HKA | Hermann Kamte Associates Team have been selected and invited to an international restricted competition by Dubai Municipality to reinvent their City Waterfront by proposing an entertainment Centre that could be the new iconic place of the city under the theme “Dubai Heart”. ​ ​

  • Privacy Policy - HKA | Hermann Kamte & Associates

    HKA | PRIVACY POLICY ​ HKA PRIVACY POLICY ​ This policy explains how we handle information about your visit to our website. This statement does not address the privacy practices of any websites that link to or from our site. Please consult the privacy practices of these companies before submitting any data to them. ​ Information Collected and Stored Automatically If you browse through our website, read pages or download the information you may be permitted to download under our , we will use cookies—small text files stored on a user’s computer for record-keeping purposes—to automatically gather and store certain anonymous information about your visit, which helps us make our website more useful to visitors. Cookies never include personal information such as a visitor’s name, mailing address, or phone number. We do not collect that information in any other way (except if you apply for employment or send us an email), and visitors cannot provide personal information through normal movement across this website. Legal Notices ​ Information we automatically collect and store about your visit may include some or all of the following: ​ . The anonymous IP address, which is a number automatically assigned to your computer whenever you are surfing the Web . The type of browser and operating system used to access our site . The country which you indicate as your location . The date and time you access our site . The pages you visit . The address (URL) of the website from which you linked to our site ​ If You Complete an Online Application for Employment with Us If you choose to fill out an employment application on-line, we will require that you provide certain Personally Identifiable Information (PII), including your name, address, phone number, and/or email address. We will also ask you to provide information necessary to process and evaluate your application and to contact you. ​ If You Send Us an Email If you choose to provide us with personal information in an email or in an attachment to an email (such as a resume), we will use that information to respond to your message and to evaluate your candidacy if you are applying for a job with us. We will treat your emails the same way we treat resumes and other letters sent to us via traditional mail. We do not collect personal information for any purpose other than responding to you. We collect PII (name, email address, social security number, or another unique identifier) only if specifically and knowingly provided by you. We do not combine the information you provide to us by email with any of your browsing activities. ​ Information Sharing and Disclosure We do not collect or use any of your information for commercial marketing. We do not share PII with third parties. ​ Legal Disclaimer – Exceptions We reserve the right to disclose your PII (however provided by you or collected by us) as required by law, and when we believe that disclosure is necessary to protect our rights and/or to comply with a judicial proceeding, court order, or legal process served on our website. ​ Changes in this Privacy Statement We reserve the right to modify this privacy statement at any time. If we make material changes to this policy, we will update this statement accordingly. It is your responsibility to review our Privacy Policy periodically so that you are aware of what information we collect, how we use it, and under what circumstances if any, we disclose it. ​ Contact Us If you have any questions or suggestions regarding the privacy or security of our website, please contact us at . info@hermann-kamte.com ​ Acceptance of These Terms By visiting or using hermann-kamte.com , you are accepting the terms of this Privacy Statement. If you do not agree to the terms of this policy, please do not use any area of our website. ​ DOWNLOAD PRIVACY POLICY IN PDF ​ LEGAL NOTICE PRIVACY POLICY GENERAL TERMS & CONDITIONS ​